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Phenotyping gamma-ray-induced mutant population of ‘Amasya’ apple for architectural traits, precocity, floral phenology and fruit characteristics

Atay, A. Nilgün, Atay, Ersin, Lauri, Pierre-Eric, Kunter, Burak, Kantoglu, K. Yaprak
Scientia horticulturae 2018 v.233 pp. 195-203
apples, buds, cultivars, early development, genotype, irradiation, mutagenesis, mutants, orchards, phenology, phenotype, principal component analysis, rootstocks, scions, trees, Turkey (country)
Consumers appreciate ‘Amasya’, the most important local apple cultivar of Turkey, but not producers because of several production constraints that complicate management of the cultivar (e.g., low yield, biennial bearing, early blooming and poor fruit skin colouring). Based on this background, ‘Amasya’ scions were irradiated to obtain mutants. Irradiated buds were grafted by bench grafting on M.9 rootstocks, and 857 trees were obtained in the nursery. Phenotyping of the mutant population for architectural traits, precocity, floral phenology and fruit characteristics was conducted under orchard conditions to identify variation among individuals. Induced mutation highly affected all variables studied. Cluster and principal component analyses confirmed considerable variation in the population. Some of the mutants were determined as superiors for the studied variables. Based on the recorded data as well as visual observations, we conclude that genotypes M181, M229, M274, M285, and M472 indicated superiority in the architectural characteristics. The five mutants (namely M112, M129, M293, M383, and M489) showed quite a late flowering in comparison to the others.