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High amylose wheat starch increases the resistance to deformation of wheat flour dough

McCann, Thu H., Homer, Stephen H., Øiseth, Sofia K., Day, Li, Newberry, Marcus, Regina, Ahmed, Lundin, Leif
Journal of cereal science 2018 v.79 pp. 440-448
amylose, confocal laser scanning microscopy, deformation, dough, granules, mechanical properties, microstructure, modulus of elasticity, protein content, rheology, starch granules, wheat, wheat flour, wheat gluten, wheat starch
High amylose wheat (HAW) starch has been the focus of a number of nutritional studies, but there is limited information around its effect on the mechanical properties of wheat flour dough. This study investigated the size, shape and packing volume of HAW starch and their effect on the microstructure and rheology of dough. Four flour blends were formulated by adding vital wheat gluten and either HAW or commercial wheat starch to HAW flour to achieve a constant 14% protein content, but varied amounts of HAW starch. A large number of small and irregularly shaped HAW starch granules resulted in a high packing volume per gram of starch. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of optimally mixed doughs correlated the degree of starch granule aggregation with the level of HAW starch in the bi-continuous dough network. Small deformation rheology demonstrated that increased quantities of HAW starch in the dough increased the elastic modulus G′ values. Uniaxial extension measurements highlighted a synergy between HAW starch and sources of gluten proteins resulting in increased strain hardening. The impact of HAW starch on dough rheology was attributed to its irregular shape and large number of small granules leading to greater granule-granule interactions.