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Effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and growth of wheat crop

Pramanik, P., Chakrabarti, Bidisha, Bhatia, Arti, Singh, S.D., Maity, A., Aggarwal, P., Krishnan, P.
Environmental monitoring and assessment 2018 v.190 no.4 pp. 217
biomass, bulk density, carbon dioxide, developmental stages, harvest index, photosynthesis, soil temperature, soil water content, sowing, stomatal conductance, surface temperature, topsoil, winter wheat
An attempt has been made to study the effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and winter wheat growth under simulated warming in temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). Results showed that bulk density (BDs) of 0, 0.9, and 2.5 °C were significantly different whereas BDs of 2.8 and 3.5 °C were not significantly different. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was maximum at 3.5 °C temperature rise and varied between 43.80 and 98.55%. Soil surface temperature (ST) at different dates of sowing increased with rise in sensor temperature and highest ST was observed at S5 sensors (3.5 °C temperature rise). Temperature and its difference were high for the top soil, and were stable for the deep soil. Photosynthesis rate (μmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹) of wheat was lower at higher temperature in different growth stages of wheat. In wheat, stomatal conductance declined from 0.67 to 0.44 mol m⁻² s⁻¹ with temperature rise. Stomatal conductance decreased with increase in soil temperature and gravimetric soil moisture content (SWC). In TGT, 0 °C temperature rise showed highest root weight density (RWD) (5.95 mg cm⁻³); whereas, 2.8 and 3.5 °C showed lowest RWD (4.90 mg cm⁻³). Harvest index was maximum (0.37) with 0 °C temperature rise, and it decreased with increase in temperature, which indicated that both grain and shoot biomass decreased with increase in temperature. Intensive studies are needed to quantify the soil hydrothermal regimes inside TGT along with the crop growth parameters.