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Possible protective effect of the algae spirulina against nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine A and/or gamma radiation in rats

Aziz, MahaM., Eid, NihadI., Nada, AhmedS., Amin, NourEl-Din, Ain-Shoka, AfafA.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.9 pp. 9060-9070
Spirulina, albumins, algae, apoptosis, blood serum, caspase-3, creatinine, cyclosporine, gamma radiation, glucose, glutathione, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, irradiation, kidneys, lipid composition, lipid peroxidation, lipids, magnesium, males, nephrotoxicity, nitrites, oxidative stress, protective effect, rats, renal function, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, urea, zinc
The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective role of the algae spirulina (Sp) against nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress which are the main secondary effects induced by the immunosuppressant drug CSA and/or ionizing radiation. In this study, male rats were given Sp (1 g/kg) either for 15 days before irradiation (6.5 Gy) or 5 days before and 10 days concomitant with CSA (25 mg/kg). Markers used to assess renal injury included serum creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin, protein, and lipid profile as well as kidney content of reduced glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)); nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In addition, some trace elements (Zn and Mg) were estimated in kidney. Apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemical estimation of caspase-3 expression in addition to histopathological examination. Results revealed that gamma radiation and/or CSA induced elevation in urea, creatinine, lipids, and glucose while decreasing albumin and protein levels. There was a noticeable increase in kidney content of GSH, TBARS, and nitrite. Meanwhile, profound decrease in kidney SOD activity was observed. Treatment with Sp significantly reversed the changes induced by CSA and/or gamma radiation in renal function tests. Spirulina also ameliorated kidney oxidative stress through decreasing GSH, TBARS, and nitrite kidney content while increasing SOD activity. Histopathological examination further confirmed Sp protective efficacy. Moreover, kidney caspase-3 expression that was triggered by CSA and/or gamma radiation was decreased. In conclusion, spirulina can be regarded as a promising renoprotective natural agent against renal injury induced by CSA and/or gamma radiation.