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Effect of ternary blends of bio-ethanol, diesel and castor oil on performance, emission and combustion in a CI engine

Prakash, T., Geo, V. Edwin, Martin, Leenus Jesu, Nagalingam, B.
Renewable energy 2018 v.122 pp. 301-309
alcohols, bioethanol, castor oil, combustion, diesel engines, mixing, nitric oxide, opacity, ricinoleic acid, separation, smoke, viscosity, water content
Some properties of castor oil such as extremely high viscosity and high water content complicate the use of neat castor oil (NCO) as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The brake thermal efficiency, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine operation compared with neat castor oil is far inferior. However, neat castor oil has an affinity for alcohol because of high Ricinoleic Acid about 89.5% and hence mixes in any proportion without any phase separation and also diesel easily blends with neat castor oil. The blending of bio-ethanol and diesel enhances the combustion of NCO. The present study aims to obtain an optimum ternary fuel blend with neat castor oil-diesel- bio-ethanol, which can be used in small diesel engines. Experimental investigation reveals that the ternary blend of neat castor oil-diesel-bio-ethanol fuel with the volume ratio of NCO40 + D30 + E30 is optimum. At full load, the thermal efficiency of the engine operating with NCO40 + D30 + E30 is 31.25%, which is closer to diesel operation of 32.94% and specific NO emission for NCO40 + D30 + E30 is 6.11 g/kWh, whereas it is 8.17 g/kWh for diesel. NCO40 + D30 + E30 has a smoke emission of 68% opacity, but the smoke level of the base diesel engine is 57% opacity.