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Pre-fermentative cold maceration in presence of non-Saccharomyces strains: Evolution of chromatic characteristics of Sangiovese red wine elaborated by sequential inoculation
- Benucci, Ilaria, Cerreti, Martina, Liburdi, Katia, Nardi, Tiziana, Vagnoli, Paola, Ortiz-Julien, Anne, Esti, Marco
- Food research international 2018 v.107 pp. 257-266
- Metschnikowia, anthocyanins, color, enzymatic treatment, inoculum, maceration, red wines
- Two different Metschnikowia strains (M. pulcherrima MP 346 or M. fructicola MF 98-3) were applied for the first time, during pre-fermentative cold maceration (PCM) in order to enhance the properties and stability of Sangiovese wine color. During the 2014 and 2015 vintages a total of eight wines were produced with 24 h of cold maceration (PCM 24 h) or 72 h (PCM 72 h), respectively. PCM was carried out in presence of MP 346 or MF 98-3 or pectic enzyme (Cuvée Rouge). The sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae strain was carried out at the end of PCM. After 12 months in the bottle, the MP 346 and MF 98-3 wines contained much higher levels of total flavonoids than the Control sample for both vintages and regardless PCM duration. Moreover, in both vintages only MF 98-3 showed a higher color intensity than the Control sample after 12 months in the bottle. However, neither PCM duration nor the microbial/enzymatic treatment increased the level of anthocyanins at draining off. Both wines produced by the pre-fermentative inoculum with Metschnikowia strains (MP 346 and MF 98-3) retained their red hue, regardless the duration of pre-fermentative and fermentative macerations, while the Control wines were characterized by faster rates of color loss.