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Combining high-throughput sequencing and targeted loci data to infer the phylogeny of the “Adenocalymma-Neojobertia” clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae)

Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M., Lohmann, Lúcia G.
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 2018 v.123 pp. 1-15
Adenocalymma, Bayesian theory, calyx, color, corolla, data collection, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, loci, monophyly, paraphyly, petioles, statistical analysis, synapomorphy, topology, trichomes, wings
Combining high-throughput sequencing data with amplicon sequences allows the reconstruction of robust phylogenies based on comprehensive sampling of characters and taxa. Here, we combine Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing data to infer the phylogeny of the “Adenocalymma-Neojobertia” clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), a diverse lineage of Neotropical plants, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We used NGS to obtain complete or nearly-complete plastomes of members of this clade, leading to a final dataset with 54 individuals, representing 44 members of ingroup and 10 outgroups. In addition, we obtained Sanger sequences of two plastid markers (ndhF and rpl32-trnL) for 44 individuals (43 ingroup and 1 outgroup) and the nuclear PepC for 64 individuals (63 ingroup and 1 outgroup). Our final dataset includes 87 individuals of members of the “Adenocalymma-Neojobertia” clade, representing 66 species (ca. 90% of the diversity), plus 11 outgroups. Plastid and nuclear datasets recovered congruent topologies and were combined. The combined analysis recovered a monophyletic “Adenocalymma-Neojobertia” clade and a paraphyletic Adenocalymma that also contained a monophyletic Neojobertia plus Pleonotoma albiflora. Relationships are strongly supported in all analyses, with most lineages within the “Adenocalymma-Neojobertia” clade receiving maximum posterior probabilities. Ancestral character state reconstructions using Bayesian approaches identified six morphological synapomorphies of clades namely, prophyll type, petiole and petiolule articulation, tendril ramification, inflorescence ramification, calyx shape, and fruit wings. Other characters such as habit, calyx cupular trichomes, corolla color, and corolla shape evolved multiple times. These characters are putatively related with the clade diversification and can be further explored in diversification studies.