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Plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration predicts progression of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats

Chen, C.N., Chou, C.C, Tsai, P.S.J., Lee, Y.J.
The veterinary journal 2018 v.232 pp. 33-39
biomarkers, blood serum, cats, creatinine, dogs, hematocrit, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, laboratory animals, phosphates, prediction, prognosis, renal failure, renal function, risk, sulfates, urea nitrogen
Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin that increases as the severity of impaired renal function increases in humans, laboratory animals, dogs and cats. An elevation of indoxyl sulfate is related to prognosis among people with chronic kidney disease. However, whether indoxyl sulfate is able to predict the progression of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats has not been previously studied. In the present study, 58 cats and 36 dogs with chronic kidney disease were enrolled. Plasma indoxyl sulfate was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Renal progression was defined as an increase by one International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage and/or a rise in serum creatinine concentration of 0.5mg/dL during the same stage within a 3-month period.Compared with the non-progression groups, across different stages of renal failure, the baseline plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration was increased in the renal progression group (P<0.05), especially for IRIS stages 2 and 3 animals. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves of indoxyl sulfate, when predicting renal progression, was above 0.75 for both dogs and cats. Indoxyl sulfate concentrations were also correlated with the increase of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and phosphate and the decrease of hematocrit among cats; while in dogs, concentrations were only correlated with the increase of phosphate concentrations. Indoxyl sulfate served as a biomarker of progression risk in dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease.