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Detection of specific bacterial agents by quantitative PCR assays in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy vs. dogs with chronic bronchitis and healthy dogs

Canonne, A.M., Peters, I., Roels, E., Desquilbet, L., Clercx, C.
The veterinary journal 2018 v.232 pp. 52-56
Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, asthma, bronchitis, dogs, humans, neutrophils, quantitative polymerase chain reaction
In humans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis infections are suggested to trigger or exacerbate asthma. Whether Mycoplasma or Bordetella are associated with chronic inflammatory bronchial diseases in dogs has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess detection rates of Mycoplasma canis (M. canis), M. cynos and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP) and chronic bronchitis (CB), compared with healthy dogs. Specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis for M. canis, M. cynos and Bb were retrospectively performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected from 24 dogs with EBP, 21 dogs with CB and 15 healthy dogs. Possible associations between qPCR results and age, BALF cytology or clinical severity scores (CSS) in dogs with EBP were investigated.There was no difference in M. canis, M. cynos and Bb detection rates in dogs with EBP (n=6, n=2 and n=6, respectively) and dogs with CB (n=2, n=2 and n=2, respectively) compared with control dogs (n=4, n=2 and n=2, respectively). In dogs with EBP, the proportion that were qPCR-positive for Bb was higher in dogs with higher CSS (P=0.014) and BALF from Bb-positive dogs had higher percentage of neutrophils (P<0.001). Among dogs that were qPCR-positive for Bb, moderate to high loads were only detected in dogs with EBP. M. canis and M. cynos detection was not associated with EBP or CB; higher Bb loads were only present in dogs with EBP and high CSS. A possible cause and effect relationship between Bb infection or load and EBP remains unclear and requires further investigation.