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Dual “Bacterial-Fungal” Symbiosis in Deltocephalinae Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae)

Kobiałka, Michał, Michalik, Anna, Walczak, Marcin, Szklarzewicz, Teresa
Microbial ecology 2018 v.75 no.3 pp. 771-782
Bacteroidetes, Fieberiella, Sordariomycetes, bacteria, bacteriocytes, entomopathogenic fungi, epithelium, fat body, hemolymph, histology, insects, midgut, ovarioles, symbionts, symbiosis, transovarial transmission
The symbiotic systems (types of symbionts, their distribution in the host insect body, and their transovarial transmission between generations) of four Deltocephalinae leafhoppers: Fieberiella septentrionalis, Graphocraerus ventralis, Orientus ishidae, and Cicadula quadrinotata have been examined by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques. In all four species, two types of symbionts are present: bacterium Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and yeast-like symbionts closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). Sulcia bacteria are always harbored in giant bacteriocytes, which are grouped into large organs termed “bacteriomes.” In F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, and O. ishidae, numerous yeast-like microorganisms are localized in cells of the fat body, whereas in C. quadrinotata, they occupy the cells of midgut epithelium in large number. Additionally, in C. quadrinotata, a small amount of yeast-like microorganisms occurs intracellularly in the fat body cells and, extracellularly, in the hemolymph. Sulcia bacteria in F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, O. ishidae, and C. quadrinotata, and the yeast-like symbionts residing in the fat body of F. septentrionalis, G. ventralis, and O. ishidae are transovarially transmitted; i.e., they infect the ovarioles which constitute the ovaries.