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Piper sarmentosum Roxb. confers neuroprotection on beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells

Yeo, Emilia Tze Ying, Wong, Kelly Wang Ling, See, Mun Ling, Wong, Ka Yan, Gan, Sook Yee, Chan, Elaine Wan Ling
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2018 v.217 pp. 187-194
Alzheimer disease, Piper sarmentosum, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, colorimetry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ethyl acetate, food plants, free radical scavengers, gene expression, headache, hexane, interleukin-1beta, leaf extracts, leaves, memory, messenger RNA, methanol, methylene chloride, neuroglia, neuroprotective effect, neurotoxicity, nitric oxide, protein phosphorylation, proteins, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, secretion, therapeutics, threonine, traditional medicine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (PS), belonging to Piperaceae family, is an edible plant with medicinal properties. It is traditionally used by the Malays to treat headache and boost memory. Pharmacological studies revealed that PS exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and anti-depressant-like effects. In view of this, the present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions of PS and its potential neuroprotective effects against beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity.The inhibitory effects of hexane (LHXN), dichloromethane (LDCM), ethyl acetate (LEA) and methanol (LMEOH) extracts from leaves of PS on Aβ-induced production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells were assessed using colorimetric assay with Griess reagent, ELISA kit and real-time RT-PCR respectively. Subsequently, MTT reduction assay was used to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PS leaf extracts against Aβ-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The levels of tau proteins phosphorylated at threonine 231 (pT231) and total tau proteins (T-tau) were determined using ELISA kits.Polar extracts of PS leaves (LEA and LMEOH) reduced the Aβ-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in BV-2 cells by downregulating the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production could be due to the free radical scavenging activity of the extracts. In addition, conditioned media from Aβ-induced BV-2 cells pre-treated with LEA and LMEOH protected SH-SY5Y cells against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Further mechanistic study suggested that the neuroprotective effects were associated with the downregulation of phosphorylated tau proteins.The present study suggests that polar extracts of PS leaves confer neuroprotection against Aβ-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by attenuating tau hyperphosphorylation through their anti-inflammatory actions and could be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.