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Fumonisins and fumonisin-producing Fusarium occurrence in wheat and wheat by products: A review

Cendoya, Eugenia, Chiotta, María Laura, Zachetti, Vanessa, Chulze, Sofía Noemí, Ramirez, María Laura
Journal of cereal science 2018 v.80 pp. 158-166
Fusarium proliferatum, barley, corn, ecophysiology, fumonisins, humans, millets, oats, rice, risk, rye, staple foods, wheat
Cereals, including wheat, rice, barley, maize, rye, oats and millet, make up the majority of the production of the crop sector, being the most important food sources for human consumption. Cereals are commonly colonized by Fusarium species and often contaminated with mycotoxins that have a major impact on health, welfare and productivity. Among the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, fumonisins are usually present in maize and maize-based products, but in the last ten years natural occurrence of fumonisins in wheat in different regions have been observed. This review provides information on the occurrence of fumonisins in wheat and wheat by products around the world. Also, data on ecophysiology of Fusarium proliferatum, one of the main species associated to fumonisin presence in wheat are included. Some data on strategies to reduce the problem are included. The possible human exposure risk of these toxins through the wheat consumption in areas where this cereal represents the main staple food is discussed.