Main content area

Review on emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR & XDR-TB) and its molecular diagnosis in Ethiopia

Saravanan, Muthupandian, Niguse, Selam, Abdulkader, Mahmud, Tsegay, Ephrem, Hailekiros, Haftamu, Gebrekidan, Atsbeha, Araya, Tadele, Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan
Microbial pathogenesis 2018 v.117 pp. 237-242
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacteria, death, developing countries, diagnostic techniques, drug resistance, drugs, epidemiology, immune response, laboratory experimentation, microRNA, pathogenesis, pathogens, surveys, tuberculosis, Ethiopia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and ranks as the second leading cause of death among deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Although the availability of short-course regimens as first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains pose a major challenge to the prevention and control efforts of national tuberculosis programs (NTPs). M. tuberculosis changes its cellular environment with the mechanisms that have been evolved since prehistoric times. The interactions between the bacteria and the host environment have been studied well. However, the studies at molecular level began to emerge recently including expression profiling of micro RNA (miRNA) and literature survey revealed that researchers find more information about their regulatory role in biological processes including immune response to infectious agents like mycobacteria. In developing countries, including Ethiopia, the burden of tuberculosis and or drug resistance profile of M. tuberculosis remains largely unexplored, mainly due to lack of quality controlled second-line laboratory tests and also lack of knowledge on molecular diagnostics. This review describes the disease etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, molecular mechanism and advanced molecular diagnostics for precision MDR-TB diagnosis.