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Characterization of tocopherols, tocotrienols and total carotenoids in deep-fat fried French fries
- Mba, Ogan I., Dumont, Marie-Josée, Ngadi, Michael
- Subtropical plant science 2018 v.69 pp. 78-86
- French fries, canola oil, carotenoids, frying oil, kinetics, models, nutrients, palm oils, tocopherols, tocotrienols
- French fries were deep-fat fried in crude palm oil (CPO), refined canola oil (RCO) and a blend of CPO/RCO (1:1 w/w) at 170 °C for different durations. The fries were analyzed for the presence of certain bioactive nutrients originating from the frying oils. The French fries absorbed over 50% of total carotenoids, 40% of tocotrienols and <20% of tocopherols from the oils. The order of enrichment based on the frying oil was CPO/RCO blend> CPO > RCO. The moisture ratio, oil uptake, and browning index were modeled with a first order kinetic model, while the changes in the concentration of nutrients in the fries were modeled using the biphasic first order model. In all cases, the coefficients of determination, R2, calculated were above 0.92. The French fries produced using CPO and the blend of CPO/RCO absorbed less oil and were significantly enriched with carotenoids and vitamin E.