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Abiotic and biotic responses to Milankovitch-forced megamonsoon and glacial cycles recorded in South China at the end of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

Fang, Qiang, Wu, Huaichun, Hinnov, Linda A., Tian, Wenqian, Wang, Xunlian, Yang, Tianshui, Li, Haiyan, Zhang, Shihong
Global and planetary change 2018 v.163 pp. 97-108
Ostracoda, Permian period, Retaria, barium, calcium, climate, climate change, fauna, geochemistry, glaciation, iron, monsoon season, summer, time series analysis, winter, China
At the end of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) from late Early Permian to early Late Permian, the global climate was impacted by a prevailing megamonsoon and Gondwanan deglaciation. To better understand the abiotic and biotic responses to Milankovitch-forced climate changes during this time period, multi-element X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemistry analyses were conducted on 948 samples from the late Early−late Middle Permian Maokou Formation at Shangsi, South China. The Fe/Ti, S/Ti, Ba/Ti and Ca time series, which were calibrated with an existing “floating” astronomical time scale (ATS), show the entire suite of Milankovitch rhythms including 405 kyr long eccentricity, 128 and 95 kyr short eccentricity, 33 kyr obliquity and 20 kyr precession. Spectral coherency and cross-phase analysis reveals that chemical weathering (monitored by Fe/Ti) and upwelling (captured by S/Ti and Ba/Ti) are nearly antiphase in the precession band, which suggests a contrast between summer and winter monsoon intensities. Strong obliquity signal in the Ba/Ti series is proposed to derive from changes in thermohaline circulation intensity from glaciation dynamics in southern Gondwana. The abundance of foraminifer, brachiopod and ostracod faunas within the Maokou Formation were mainly controlled by the ~1.1 Myr obliquity modulation cycle. The obliquity-forced high-nutrient and oxygen-depleted conditions generally produced a benthic foraminifer bloom, but threatened the brachiopod and ostracod faunas.