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Development of bupivacaine decorated reduced graphene oxide and its local anesthetic effect—In vivo study
- Zhang, Zhi, Zhang, Xin, Li, Aixiang, Ma, Chuangen
- Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2018 v.180 pp. 72-76
- analgesic effect, animal models, cytotoxicity, drug delivery systems, fibroblasts, graphene oxide, high performance liquid chromatography, in vivo studies, local anesthetics, spectroscopy
- The present works aims to develop bupivacaine modified reduced graphene oxide (BPV/RGO), and comparative evaluation of their anesthetic effect with free bupivacaine (BPV). The prepared BPV/RGO was studied by using various spectroscopic and microscopic characterization studies. In vitro drug release from BPV/RGO was studied using HPLC analysis. The cytotoxicity of BPV/RGO was studied against fibroblast (3T3) cells. In vivo evaluation of anesthetic effects was performed on animal models. BPV/RGO showed a prolonged in vitro release and lower cytotoxicity when compared to free BPV. Also, BPV/RGO showed a significantly prolonged analgesic effect when compared to free BPV. Further, the prepared BPV/RGO drug delivery system demonstrated to function as gifted to overcome the drawbacks of free BPV and other available drug delivery systems by prolonging the anesthetic effect with poor cytotoxicity.