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Development of bupivacaine decorated reduced graphene oxide and its local anesthetic effect—In vivo study

Zhang, Zhi, Zhang, Xin, Li, Aixiang, Ma, Chuangen
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2018 v.180 pp. 72-76
analgesic effect, animal models, cytotoxicity, drug delivery systems, fibroblasts, graphene oxide, high performance liquid chromatography, in vivo studies, local anesthetics, spectroscopy
The present works aims to develop bupivacaine modified reduced graphene oxide (BPV/RGO), and comparative evaluation of their anesthetic effect with free bupivacaine (BPV). The prepared BPV/RGO was studied by using various spectroscopic and microscopic characterization studies. In vitro drug release from BPV/RGO was studied using HPLC analysis. The cytotoxicity of BPV/RGO was studied against fibroblast (3T3) cells. In vivo evaluation of anesthetic effects was performed on animal models. BPV/RGO showed a prolonged in vitro release and lower cytotoxicity when compared to free BPV. Also, BPV/RGO showed a significantly prolonged analgesic effect when compared to free BPV. Further, the prepared BPV/RGO drug delivery system demonstrated to function as gifted to overcome the drawbacks of free BPV and other available drug delivery systems by prolonging the anesthetic effect with poor cytotoxicity.