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Microsporogenesis and exine structure in Trochodendron aralioides Siebold and Zuccarini (Trochodendraceae)

Hsu, Yu-Chwen, Jane, Wann-Neng, Chen, Su-Hwa
Plant systematics and evolution 2013 v.299 no.6 pp. 1057-1064
exine, microsporogenesis, xylem vessels, callose, wood, developmental stages, cytokinesis, flowers, trees, Trochodendron aralioides, plasma membrane, meiosis, pollen
This study aimed to elucidate the anther wall development, pollen wall development, and exine structure of Trochodendron aralioides Siebold and Zuccarini, a tree with primitive vessels but long considered to lack vessel elements in its wood. The anther wall is the basic type: epidermis, endothecium layer, three middle layers, and tapetum. The anther tapetum is glandular and cells are uniseriate. Microspore mother cells undergo meiosis with simultaneous cytokinesis to produce tetrahedral tetrads enclosed within a callose wall. Before development of the protectum, primexine is inserted against the callose, and the plasma membrane is invaginated. Then, the probacula are elongated under the protectum and arise basally from the plasma membrane. The foot layer formation is concomitant with callose wall dissolution. The foot layer is thick, and the endexine is thin. The foot layer and the endexine are both continuous. The intine is initially formed in the vacuolated microspore stage. Hollow Ubisch bodies are observed on the inner surface of the tapetum in free microspore stage. Pollen grains are tricolporate and 2-celled at the time of shedding. The numerous anthers of a single flower are at different development stages in both protandrous and protogynous individuals.