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Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lutein and chlorophyll from spinach by-products using response surface methodology

Derrien, Maëlle, Aghabararnejad, Milad, Gosselin, André, Desjardins, Yves, Angers, Paul, Boumghar, Yacine
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2018 v.93 pp. 79-87
Spinacia oleracea, bioactive compounds, byproducts, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, dietary supplements, ethanol, experimental design, lutein, plant residues, response surface methodology, spinach, supercritical fluid extraction, temperature, value added, wastes
Industrial vegetable wastes contain high amounts of valuable molecules and constitute a valuable source of bioactive compounds providing health benefits. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), a green leafy vegetable, is known to its valuable phytochemical's content. However, its production yields about 25% of wastes that can be valorized for the production of value-added food supplements. This work focuses on the development and optimization of sustainable extraction using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) of the lutein and chlorophyll, two health functional molecules, from spinach by-products. Box–Behnken experimental design was used to optimize the process variables: pressure (10, 30, 50 MPa), co-solvent percentages (0, 5, and 10% (v/v), temperature (40, 50, 60 °C), time (1, 3, 5 h). It was found that the optimum extraction parameters were at temperature of 56 °C, extraction time of 3.6 h, pressure of 39 MPa, and 10% ethanol as cosolvent. Under these conditions, a yield of 72% lutein and 50% of chlorophyll was obtained.