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Erythrocyte fatty acid composition of Nepal breast-fed infants

Henjum, Sigrun, Lie, Øyvind, Ulak, Manjeswori, Thorne-Lyman, AndrewL., Chandyo, RamK., Shrestha, PrakashS., W. Fawzi, Wafaie, Strand, TorA., Kjellevold, Marian
European journal of nutrition 2018 v.57 no.3 pp. 1003-1013
arachidonic acid, breast feeding, breast milk, children, cooking fats and oils, diet recall, dietary fat, docosahexaenoic acid, energy intake, erythrocytes, fat intake, fatty acid composition, infants, linoleic acid, models, mothers, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, soybeans, sunflower oil, Nepal
PURPOSE: Essential fatty acids play a critical role in the growth and development of infants, but little is known about the fatty acid status of populations in low-income countries. The objective was to describe the fatty acid composition of red blood cells (RBC) in breastfeed Nepali infants and a subsample of their mothers and to identify the main sources of fatty acids in the mother’s diet, as well as the fatty acid composition of breast milk. METHODS: RBC fatty acid composition was analyzed in a random sample of 303 infants and 72 mother, along with 68 breastmilk samples. Fatty acid profiles of the most important dietary fat sources were analyzed. Information on mother’s diet and intake of fat was collected by three 24-h dietary recalls. RESULTS: In infant RBC’s, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the main n-3 fatty acid, and arachidonic acid (AA) was the major n-6 fatty acid. Total n-6 PUFA was three times higher than total n-3 PUFA. Height-for-age (HAZ) was positively associated with DHA status and AA status in multivariable models. The concentration of all fatty acids was higher in children, compared to mothers, except Total n-6 PUFA and Linoleic acid (LA) where no differences were found. The mother’s energy intake from fat was 13% and cooking oil (sesame, mustard, soybean or sunflower oil) contributed 52% of the fat intake. CONCLUSIONS: RBC-DHA levels in both infants and mother was unexpected high taking into account few dietary DHA sources and the low DHA concentrations in breastmilk.