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The effect of chitosan–PMAA–NPK nanofertilizer on Pisum sativum plants

Khalifa, NohaS., Hasaneen, MohammedN.
3 Biotech 2018 v.8 no.4 pp. 193
DNA, Pisum sativum subsp. sativum var. sativum, agricultural land, chitosan, comet assay, convicilin, dose response, genotoxicity, legumin, mitosis, nanoparticles, nitrogen, peas, phosphorus, polymerization, potassium, root growth, root systems, seedlings, starch, vicilin
The use of chitosan (CS) as a carrier for slow fertilizer release is a novel trend. The potential effect of this system in agriculture is still debatable. Here, chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid (PMAA) for the entrapment of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK) nanoparticles (NP), each at a time to form CS–PMAA–NPK NPs complex. The impact of this complex was evaluated using garden pea (Pisum sativum var. Master B) plants. Five-day-old pea seedlings were treated through their root system with CS–PMAA–NPK NPs at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.0625 of the stock solution (R) for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In general, CS–PMAA–NPK NP complex reduced root elongation rate and resulted in the accumulation of starch at the root tip in a dose-dependent manner within the treated plants. Interestingly, the lowest concentrations of 0.0625 and 0.125 R had induced mitotic cell division (MI = 22.45 ± 2.68 and 19.72 ± 3.48, respectively) compared with the control (MI = 9.09 ± 3.28). In addition, some of major proteins such as convicilin, vicilin and legumin β were upregulated in plants treated with these low concentrations too. However, all concentrations used exhibited genotoxic effect on DNA based on the comet assay data after 48 h of treatment. Thus, it is highly recommended to consider the negative effects of this carrier system on plants and environment that may arise due to its accumulation in the agricultural fields.