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Safety and immunogenicity of investigational recombinant botulinum vaccine, rBV A/B, in volunteers with pre-existing botulinum toxoid immunity

Khouri, Jessica M., Motter, Ruth N., Arnon, Stephen S.
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.15 pp. 2041-2048
botulinum toxin, botulism, humans, immune response, injection site, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, monitoring, neutralizing antibodies, safety assessment, serotypes, telephones, vaccination, vaccines
We undertook an open-label, uncontrolled study of investigational recombinant botulinum vaccine for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A and B (rBV A/B) to assess its safety and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers who had been previously immunized with investigational pentavalent botulinum toxoid. Study participants who wished to do so could donate their hyperimmune plasma for production of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV, BabyBIG®).A single 0.5 ml (mL), 40-microgram intramuscular injection of rBV A/B was administered to study participants. Post-vaccination sera collected at approximately 2-week intervals were evaluated for anti-BoNT/A and anti-BoNT/B neutralizing antibody concentrations (NAC). Local and systemic treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were identified by clinical and laboratory monitoring for 12 weeks post-vaccination with a final telephone follow-up for additional safety assessment at 6 months. The primary endpoint for immunogenicity was a ≥4-fold rise in NAC in ≥50% of participants by Week 4 post-vaccination.All 45 enrolled participants completed the study. Forty-two of 45 participants (93.3%) experienced at least one TEAE. Overall, 138 of 218 (63.3%) reported TEAEs were treatment-related, the majority of which were mild injection-site reactions. No serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The study achieved its primary immunogenicity endpoint with 37/45 (82.2%) participants and 39/45 (86.7%) participants having a ≥4-fold rise in NAC to anti-BoNT/A and to anti-BoNT/B, respectively, by Week 4 post-vaccination.A single 0.5 mL dose of rBV A/B was safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in participants previously immunized with pentavalent botulinum toxoid. The tolerability and immunogenicity characteristics of rBV A/B vaccination of individuals with existing BoNT immunity support its potential future use to provide occupational protection to botulism laboratory workers. Almost all study participants donated hyperimmune plasma for production of registration number: NCT01701999.