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Dough and bread making from high- and low-protein flours by vacuum mixing: Part 3. Oral processing of bread

Gao, Jing, Tay, Shia Lyn, Koh, Audrey Hui-Si, Zhou, Weibiao
Journal of cereal science 2018 v.79 pp. 408-417
breadmaking, breads, deglutition, dough, eating habits, electromyography, flour, mastication, mixing, muscles, sensation, texture
This study aimed to understand the impact of vacuum mixing induced changes in the structural and physical characteristics of bread, which had extensively been investigated in the first two parts of the series of study, on human oral processing of baked bread and steamed bread. The chewing behaviour, dynamic texture perception and swallowing thresholds of twelve healthy panellists were characterised using surface electromyography (EMG), temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) and bolus characterization, respectively. There was no difference in the swallowing thresholds between the vacuum mixed bread and control bread, for either baked bread or steamed bread. Nevertheless, baked bread made from vacuum mixed dough required slightly longer chewing duration and greater muscle activities than the control baked bread, which was attributed to its denser structure and harder texture. On the other hand, steamed bread made from vacuum mixed dough required smaller muscle activities compared to the control steamed bread. Significance difference in texture perception was only observed between baked and steamed bread but not among the same type of bread made between vacuum and atmospheric mixing. Results indicated that vacuum mixing might be used as a technique to change bread structure that affects consumer's eating behaviour but not texture perception.