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Breeding systems and seed production for six weedy taxa of Bidens
- Hao, Jian‐Hua, Bhattacharya, Saurav, Ma, Liang, Wang, Li‐Xin
- Weed biology and management 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 41-49
- Bidens pilosa, breeding, gardens, open pollination, pollen, pollinators, seed set, vegetative propagation, China
- Successful reproduction is considered to be the major determining factor for a weedy population to establish, colonize and infest. The breeding systems and seed production of six weedy taxa of Bidens were studied at an experimental garden in Jiangsu province in China. The results from four treatments (open pollination, bagged capitulum, decapitated capitulum, and pollen supplement) indicated that, with the exception of Bidens pilosa var. radiata, all the other five Bidens taxa; namely, B. pilosa var. pilosa, B. pilosa var. minor, B. frondosa, B.bipinnata, and B. biternata, were self‐fertile with a high seed‐set in bagged capitula, and a high autofertility index. Including the trait of vegetative propagation in self‐incompatible B. pilosa var. radiata, all the six weedy taxa of Bidens had the capacity of uniparental reproduction. The pollen limitation values for all six Bidens taxa were low in the present study. However, the seed production of B. pilosa var. radiata is likely to decrease in the absence of sufficient pollinators, related to its high pollen contribution and potential pollen limitation indices. The seed production per plant and per capitulum of the three varieties of B. pilosa was the highest among the six taxa and might contribute to their serious weediness. The breeding system type and seed number per capitulum could be used as a classification reference for Bidens taxa.