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Comparison of an injectable toltrazuril-gleptoferron (Forceris®) and an oral toltrazuril (Baycox®) + injectable iron dextran for the control of experimentally induced piglet cystoisosporosis

Joachim, Anja, Shrestha, Aruna, Freudenschuss, Barbara, Palmieri, Nicola, Hinney, Barbara, Karembe, Hamadi, Sperling, Daniel
Parasites & vectors 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 206
Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, body weight, dextran, diarrhea, enteropathogens, excretion, feces, iron, neonates, oocysts, piglets, prepatent period, suckling, toltrazuril, weight gain
BACKGROUND: Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhoeal disease and reduced weight gain in suckling piglets, and a toltrazuril-based oral suspension is available for treatment. Recently a combinatorial product with toltrazuril plus iron has been developed for parenteral application. In this study we compared the efficacy of the injectable product with the oral suspension against experimentally induced piglet cystoisosporosis. METHODS: In a randomised controlled study, three groups of piglets (n = 10–13) were treated either with a fixed dose of 45 mg toltrazuril + 200 mg gleptoferron i.m. per piglet (Forceris®) on the second day of life (study day 2; SD 2) or with 20 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight as an oral suspension (Baycox® 5%) on SD 4 or left untreated (Control group). The Baycox® and the Control group received 200 mg of iron dextran/piglet on SD 2. All piglets were infected with 1000 sporulated C. suis oocysts on SD 3. Faecal samples were taken daily from SD 7 to SD 20 to determine faecal consistency, oocyst shedding and other diarrhoeal pathogens. Body weight was recorded on SD 1 and then weekly until SD 29. Animals were observed daily for general health and after treatment for possible adverse events. RESULTS: In the Control group all animals shed oocysts for 3.1 days on average and all animals showed diarrhoea for an average of five days. Excretion peaked on SD 9 (max. 48,618 oocysts per gram of faeces). Treatment with Forceris® completely suppressed oocyst excretion. In the Baycox® group, low levels of excretion could be detected. Diarrhoea was reduced to single piglets in the treated groups. Body weight development was reduced in the Control group compared to the treated groups. Enteropathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens) could be detected. All parameters related to oocyst excretion, faecal consistency and weight gain were significantly improved in the treated groups compared to the Control group without significant differences between the treated groups. Both products were safe to use. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with both the injectable (Forceris®) and the oral (Baycox®) formulation of toltrazuril in the prepatent period were safe and highly effective against experimental infection with C. suis in newborn piglets.