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Molecular characterization of the spike gene of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Mexico, 2013–2016

Lara-Romero, Rocío, Gómez-Núñez, Luis, Cerriteño-Sánchez, JoséLuis, Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura, Mendoza-Elvira, Susana, Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto, Rivera-Benítez, JoséFrancisco
Virus genes 2018 v.54 no.2 pp. 215-224
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, amino acids, collagenase, diarrhea, disease outbreaks, epitopes, farms, genes, intestines, loss-of-function mutation, phylogeny, piglets, probability, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Mexico
In Mexico, the first outbreaks suggestive of the circulation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) were identified at the beginning of July 2013. To identify the molecular characteristics of the PEDV Spike (S) gene in Mexico, 116 samples of the intestine and diarrhea of piglets with clinical signs of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were obtained. Samples were collected from 14 farms located in six states of Mexico (Jalisco, Puebla, Sonora, Veracruz, Guanajuato, and Michoacán) from 2013 to 2016. To identify PEDV, we used real-time RT-PCR to discriminate between non-INDEL and INDEL strains. We chose samples according to state and year to characterize the S gene. After amplification of the S gene, the obtained products were sequenced and assembled. The complete amino acid sequences of the spike protein were used to perform an epitope analysis, which was used to determine null mutations in regions SS2, SS6, and 2C10 compared to the sequences of G2. A phylogenetic analysis determined the circulation of G2b and INDEL strains in Mexico. However, several mutations were recorded in the collagenase equivalent (COE) region that were related to the change in polarity and charge of the amino acid residues. The PEDV strain circulating in Jalisco in 2016 has an insertion of three amino acids (²³²LGL²³⁴) and one change in the antigenic site of the COE region, and strains from the years 2015 and 2016 changed the index of the surface probability, which could be related to the re-emergence of disease outbreaks.