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Combined application of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 ameliorated the lead toxicity in radish by regulating the homeostasis of antioxidants and lead

Ahmad, Iftikhar, Akhtar, Muhammad Javed, Mehmood, Shehzad, Akhter, Kalsoom, Tahir, Muhammad, Saeed, Muhammad Farhan, Hussain, Muhammad Baqir, Hussain, Saddam
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.148 pp. 805-812
Bacillus (bacteria), aerial parts, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, ascorbate peroxidase, biomass, catalase, composts, electrolytes, homeostasis, lead, malondialdehyde, photosynthesis, phytotoxicity, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, polluted soils, pot culture, radishes, stomatal conductance
Lead (Pb) contamination is ubiquitous and usually causes toxicity to plants. Nevertheless, application of compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria synergistically may ameliorate the Pb toxicity in radish. The present study assessed the effects of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 on growth, physiology, antioxidants and uptake of Pb in contaminated soil and explored the possible mechanism for Pb phytotoxicity amelioration. Treatments comprised of un-inoculated control, compost, CIK-512, and compost + CIK-512; plants were grown in soil contaminated with Pb (500mgkg⁻¹) and without Pb in pot culture. Lead caused reduction in shoot dry biomass, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, relative water contents, whereas enhanced root dry biomass, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage in comparison with non-contaminated control. Plants inoculated with strain CIK-512 and compost produced significantly higher dry biomass, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in normal and contaminated soils. Bacterial strain CIK-512 and compost synergy improved growth and physiology of radish in contaminated soil possibly through homeostasis of antioxidant activities, reduced membrane leakage and Pb accumulation in shoot. Possibly, Pb-induced production of reactive oxygen species resulted in increased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents (r = 0.88–0.92), which led to reduction in growth (r = −0.97) and physiology (r = −0.38 to −0.80), however, such negative effects were ameliorated by the regulation of antioxidants (r = 0.78–0.87). The decreased activity of antioxidants coupled with Pb accumulation in aerial part of the radish indicates the Pb-phytotoxicity amelioration through synergistic application of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512.