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Effectiveness of vital gluten and transglutaminase in the improvement of physico-chemical properties of fresh bread
- Boukid, Fatma, Carini, Eleonora, Curti, Elena, Bardini, Gloria, Pizzigalli, Emanuele, Vittadini, Elena
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2018 v.92 pp. 465-470
- breadmaking quality, breads, color, experimental design, gluten, hardness, multivariate analysis, protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase, synergism, texture, water activity, water content, wheat flour
- Transglutaminase (TG) and vital gluten (VG) were tested as improver agents in bread. The experimental design evaluated TG (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 g/100 g flour), VG (0 and 1 g/100 g flour), and wheat flour strength (weak - WF, medium - MF, and strong - SF). Bread specific volume, texture, color, moisture content and water activity were assessed and elaborated with multivariate statistical analysis (MANOVA). TG had a significant (p ≤ 0.001) impact on bread specific volume, color, texture and water status, while VG significantly (p ≤ 0.001) impacted on crust color and texture. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) synergic effect (TGxVG) was observed on texture, crust color and water activity, depending on flour strength. Optimal addition levels for best bread quality (low hardness and high specific volume) were selected for each flour: WF 0.2 g/100 g flour TG and 1 g/100 g flour VG; MF, 0.1 and 0.2 g/100 g flour of TG with 1 g/100 g flour VG; SF 0.1 g/100 g flour TG with 1 g/100 g flour VG.