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Hydrolysis, adsorption, and biodegradation of bensulfuron methyl under methanogenic conditions

Zhu, Fan-Ping, Duan, Jian-Lu, Yuan, Xian-Zheng, Shi, Xiao-Shuang, Han, Zhen-Lian, Wang, Shu-Guang
Chemosphere 2018 v.199 pp. 138-146
adsorption, amino acids, bensulfuron, biodegradation, biotransformation, hazard characterization, hydrolysis, methane, methanogens, moieties, paddy soils, proteins
Bensulfuron methyl (BSM), one of the most widely used herbicides in paddy soils, is frequently detected in natural and artificial aquatic systems. However, BSM transformation under methanogenic conditions has not been given sufficient attention. In this study, BSM elimination and transformation by anaerobic enrichment cultures were investigated. The results showed that BSM can be mineralized to methane through hydrolysis, adsorption, and biodegradation under a methanogenic environment. The adsorption led to protein static quenching in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of the enrichment cultures. Specifically, BSM mainly reacted with the amine, amide, amino acid, and amino sugar functional groups in proteins. BSM hydrolysis and biodegradation occurred through the breakage of the sulfonylurea bridge and sulfonyl amide linkage. The cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge occurred in both hydrolysis and biodegradation, while the cleavage of the sulfonyl amide linkage only occurred in hydrolysis. These results elucidated the complex transformation of BSM under methanogenic conditions, which will advance the studies on sulfonylurea herbicide biotransformation and hazard assessment in the environment.