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An inhalation-ingestion bioaccessibility assay (IIBA) for the assessment of exposure to metal(loid)s in PM10

Kastury, Farzana, Smith, E., Karna, Ranju R., Scheckel, Kirk G., Juhasz, A.L.
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.631-632 pp. 92-104
agitation, arsenic, bioavailability, breathing, humans, intestines, lead, liquids, lungs, mining, particulates, solids
Although metal(loid) bioaccessibility of ambient particulate matter, with an aerodynamic diameter of <10μm (PM10), has recently received increasing attention, limited research exists into standardising in-vitro methodologies using simulated lung fluid (SLF). Contradictions exist regarding which assay parameters should be adopted. Additionally, potential continuation of metal(loid) dissolution once PM10 is cleared from the lungs and passed through the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) has rarely been addressed. The objective of this study was to assess parameters that influence inhalation bioaccessibility in order to develop a conservative assay that is relevant to a human inhalation scenario. To achieve this aim, the effect of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio, extraction time, agitation and five major SLF compositions on the bioaccessibilities of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) was investigated using PM10 from three Australian mining/smelting impacted regions. Using the biologically relevant parameters that resulted in the most conservative outcomes, bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s in PM10 was assessed in SLF, followed by simulated GIT solutions. Results from this study revealed that fluid composition and S/L ratio significantly affected metal(loid) dissolution (p<0.05). The highest Pb bioaccessibility resulted using simulated lung-gastric solution, while that of As resulted using simulated lung-gastric-small intestinal tract solutions. Compared to SLF alone, metal(loid) dissolution using the inhalation-ingestion bioaccessibility assay (IIBA) was significantly higher (p<0.05) for all PM10 samples.