Characterization of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) and Its Impact Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Eggs at Low Temperature
- Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 2017 v.33 no.3 pp. 184-192
- Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, agar, color, conidia, conidiophores, diapause, eggs, fungi, glucose, larvae, microbial growth, mosquito control, mycelium, paper, seed germination, sporulation, temperature, yeast extract
- We examined the growth characteristics of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum IBT 41712 and its potential to infect eggs of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus at a low temperature (15°C). When grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract, the IBT 41712 formed white colonies turning to a slightly darker, off-white color when mature. The mycelia bore swollen conidiophores producing smooth-walled, oblong to cylindrical conidia with varying sizes, ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 μm long. To determine the optimum temperature for the fungus, we cultured the fungus at eight temperatures (4°C, 12°C, 15°C, 21°C, 28°C, 33°C, 37°C, and 40°C) and measured the diametric growth. The optimum temperature for growth was 28°C since it had the highest diametric growth rate (2.1 ± 0.05 mm/day) and the fastest sporulation period (within 8–10 days of incubation). There was no fungal growth at the 3 highest temperatures (33°C, 37°C, and 40°C) but plates incubated at 33°C, when shifted to optimal temperature (28°C), showed visible growth indicating that following incubation at 33°C, the fungus remained viable. The IBT 41712 successfully infected mosquito eggs at 15°C. Fungal treatment induced egg hatch on moist seed-germination paper and this effect was more pronounced in Ae. aegypti compared to Ae. albopictus. When treated eggs were immersed in dH₂O 21 days posttreatment, larval hatch of both Ae. aegypti (control = 91%, 1 × 10⁷ conidia/ml, fungal treatment = 0%) and Ae. albopictus (control = 85%, fungal treatment = 28%) was significantly lower in fungal treatment compared to the controls. The ability of the strain to grow in a wide temperature range, and effectively infect mosquito eggs and induce egg hatch at a low temperature warrants further investigation for its potential as a mosquito control agent targeting eggs that overwinter or undergo long diapause.