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Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system

Parks, Connie L., Monson, Keith L.
Forensic science international 2018 v.286 pp. 8-11
anthropometric measurements, computed tomography, face, forensic sciences, image analysis, models
This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (Rk) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects’ ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R1, a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R10=85%, R25=96%, and R50=99%), with 100% identification by R57. A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R1 and R10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p<0.01) increases in identification rates were observed between R10 and R25 (8% mean increase) and R25 and R50 (3% mean increase). No significant (p>0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems.