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Genetics of bi-component leukocidin and drug resistance in nasal and clinical Staphylococcus aureus in Lagos, Nigeria

Enwuru, Nkechi V., Adesida, Solayide A., Enwuru, Christian A., Ghebremedhin, Beniam, Mendie, Udoma E., Coker, Akitoye O.
Microbial pathogenesis 2018 v.115 pp. 1-7
chromosomes, disease control, drug resistance, fosfomycin, genes, innate immunity, issues and policy, leukotoxins, linezolid, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, monitoring, nitrofurantoin, nose, public health, tigecycline, vancomycin, virulence, Nigeria
Resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus is a global public health challenge. Staphylococcal Bi-component leukotoxins are cytolytic to immune cells and evolve to disarm the innate immunity during infections, hence the severity of the disease.We studied drug resistance profile and the occurrence of bi-component leukocidin in clinical and nasal S. aureus in Lagos, Nigeria.Ninety-two S. aureus (70 clinical and 22 nasal) strains were characterized by conventional and molecular methods.Of the resistance profiles generated, no isolate was resistant to fosfomycin, fusidic acid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, mupirocin, nitrofurantoin and tigecycline. Twelve MRSA carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA gene types I, III, and IV elements were identified only in the clinical samples and type I dominated. High rates of lukE/D (100% among MRSA) and lukPV (dominated MSSA) were recorded among the nasal and clinical isolates. Staphylococcus aureus harboring only lukE/D (from clinical & colonizing MSSA) and combined lukE/D and lukPV (mostly from clinical MSSA, colonizing MSSA and clinical MRSA) toxins were found.Although, mecA resistant genes were found only among clinical MRSA, the occurrence of other bi-component leukocidin genes in a large proportion among the isolates from both community and clinical settings is a major concern. The need for effective resistance and virulence factor surveillance, re-enforcement of antibiotic stewardship and good infection control policy, to prevent dissemination of epidemic strains is highlighted.