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Marine actinomycetes as bioremediators in Penaeus monodon rearing system

Babu, Divya T., Archana, K., Kachiprath, Bhavya, Solomon, Solly, Jayanath, G., Singh, I.S. Bright, Philip, Rosamma
Fish & shellfish immunology 2018 v.75 pp. 231-242
DNA-directed DNA polymerase, Nocardiopsis alba, Penaeus monodon, Streptomyces champavatii, Streptomyces diastaticus, Streptomyces parvus, White spot syndrome virus, antimicrobial peptides, biochemical oxygen demand, bioremediation, fish, genes, glutathione transferase, hemocyanin, immunology, laboratory animals, larvae, marine environment, prophenoloxidase, protein kinases, rearing, ribonucleotide reductase, screening, sediments, shellfish, shrimp, shrimp culture, thymidine kinase, water quality
Actinomycetes (277 Nos) isolated from marine environment and shrimp culture pond sediments were tested for hydrolytic enzyme production and biogranulation property. Potential isolates were screened for their efficacy in bioremediation of shrimp culture system. Based on the BOD reduction efficiency and water quality parameters, five actinomycete isolates viz., Streptomyces coelicoflavus (A6), Streptomyces diastaticus (A44), Nocardiopsis alba (A55), Streptomyces parvus (A56) and Streptomyces champavatii (R32) were subjected for tertiary screening in Penaeus monodon larval rearing system and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The bioremediating effect of actinomycete treatments were assessed by analysing the expression profile of five antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and eight immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, glutathione-S-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and Rab-7. Expression of eight WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analyzed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. Theapplication of consortia (1 g/5 L water) yields better results in terms of significant reduction in BOD of shrimp rearing system showing the bioremediation potential of the marine actinomycete strains. The application of marine actinomycetes viz., Streptomyces coelicoflavus (A6), Streptomyces diastaticus (A44), Nocardiopsis alba (A55), Streptomyces parvus (A56) and Streptomyces champavatii (R32) in granulated form were found to be potential bioremediators in shrimp rearing system.