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Invertebrate acetylcholinesterases: Insights into their evolution and non-classical functions
- Kim, Young Ho, Lee, Si Hyeock
- Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2018 v.21 no.1 pp. 186-195
- Arachnida, Nematoda, acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, genes, insects, invertebrates, loci, neurotransmitters, pesticides, pests, synaptic transmission, toxicology, vertebrates
- Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a pivotal role in synaptic transmission by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In addition to the classical function of AChE in synaptic transmission, various non-classical functions have been elucidated. Unlike vertebrates possessing a single AChE gene (ace), invertebrates (nematodes, arachnids, and insects) have multiple ace loci, encoding diverse AChEs with a range of different functions. In the field of toxicology, AChE with synaptic function has long been exploited as the target of organophosphorus and cabarmate pesticides to control invertebrate pests for the past several decades. However, many aspects of the evolution and non-classical roles of invertebrate AChEs are still unclear. Although currently available information on invertebrate AChEs is fragmented, we reviewed the recent findings on their evolutionary status, molecular/biochemical properties, and deduced non-classical (non-neuronal) functions.