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Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of grape pomace phenolic compounds in humans

Castello, Fabio, Costabile, Giuseppina, Bresciani, Letizia, Tassotti, Michele, Naviglio, Daniele, Luongo, Delia, Ciciola, Paola, Vitale, Marilena, Vetrani, Claudia, Galaverna, Gianni, Brighenti, Furio, Giacco, Rosalba, Del Rio, Daniele, Mena, Pedro
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2018 v.646 pp. 1-9
bioavailability, byproducts, catechin, grape pomace, humans, juice industry, metabolites, multivariate analysis, pharmacokinetics, phenolic acids, polyphenols, propionic acid, urine, wines
Grape pomace, the major byproduct of the wine and juice industry, is a relevant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. However, polyphenol bioavailability in humans is not well understood, and the inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites has not been comprehensively assessed to date. The pharmacokinetic and excretive profiles of phenolic metabolites after the acute administration of a drink made from red grape pomace was here investigated in ten volunteers. A total of 35 and 28 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma, respectively. The main circulating metabolites included phenyl-γ-valerolactones, hydroxybenzoic acids, simple phenols, hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and (epi)catechin phase II conjugates. A high inter-individual variability was shown both in urine and plasma samples, and different patterns of circulating metabolites were unravelled by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis. Besides the huge variability in the production of microbial metabolites of colonic origin, an important variability was observed due to phase II conjugates. These results are of interest to further understand the potential health benefits of phenolic metabolites on individual basis.