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Depletion study, withdrawal period calculation and bioaccumulation of sulfamethazine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with medicated feed

Nunes, Kátia S.D., Vallim, José H., Assalin, Márcia R., Queiroz, Sonia C.N., Paraíba, Lourival C., Jonsson, Claudio M., Reyes, Felix G.R.
Chemosphere 2018 v.197 pp. 89-95
European Union, Oreochromis niloticus, acceptable daily intake, adverse effects, bioaccumulation, body weight, diodes, fish, fish fillets, guidelines, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, maximum residue limits, medicated feeds, muscles, public policy, risk, subsidies, veterinary drugs, Brazil
The residue depletion of sulfamethazine (SMZ) was evaluated in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after 11 days of administration of medicated feed containing SMZ, at the dose of 422 mg/kg body weight (bw). The determination of SMZ in feed and tilapia fillet was carried out using the QuEChERS approach for sample preparation, and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) for quantitation, respectively. Both methods were validated based on international and Brazilian guidelines and shown to be suitable for the intended purposes. The withdrawal period to reach the maximum residue level (MRL) of 100 μg/kg, according to the European Union (EU) legislative framework to all substances belonging to the sulfonamide (SA) group (EU, 2010), was 10 days (260 °C-day). After treatment, the maximum level of SMZ accumulation in the tilapia muscle was 1.6 mg/kg. SMZ was shown to be quickly excreted by tilapia. Thus, considering the acceptable daily intake of SMZ established by the Codex Commission (0–0.05 mg/kg bw), and a factor of 5 times the upper amount of fish consumption in Brazil (38 kg/year), this study showed that there is a low risk of adverse effects to consumers. This study offers subsidies not only for the establishment of public policies with regard to the use of veterinary drugs currently not allowed in a country by their legal legislative framework for fish farming, but also to fish producers for the proper handling to ensure safe fish fillets.