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Mitigation of Acute Aluminum Toxicity by Sodium Selenite and N-Acetylcysteine in Adult Male Rats

Nour-Eldein, NaglaaH., Hassanin, El-SayedA., El-Sayed, WaelM.
Biological trace element research 2018 v.183 no.1 pp. 128-137
acetylcysteine, adults, aluminum, aluminum chloride, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, atherosclerosis, bioavailability, cell membranes, enzymes, excretion, free radicals, glutathione, hepatocytes, histopathology, inflammation, kidneys, lipid composition, lipid peroxidation, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, males, rats, risk, sodium selenite, toxicity, vitamin E
The objective of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum and the potential alleviation of selenite and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on this toxicity. Acute aluminum toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AlCl₃ (30 mg Al³⁺/kg) for four consecutive days. Al³⁺ damaged the synthetic capability and regeneration power of liver cells and induced inflammation. It also damaged the kidney and disturbed the lipid profile enhancing the total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level increasing the risks of atherosclerosis. Al³⁺ reduced the cellular antioxidant milieu typified by the decrease in reduced glutathione, vitamin E, and four antioxidant enzymes and induced lipid peroxidation (LPO). Selenite at 1 mg Se/kg and NAC at 150 mg/kg injected either simultaneously with or after Al³⁺ mitigated most of these damaging effects probably by the virtue of scavenging the free radicals, binding aluminum and stimulating its excretion and reducing its bioavailability, bolstering the endogenous antioxidant defense systems, stabilizing the cell membrane, and preventing LPO. The beneficial effects of selenite and NAC against aluminum toxicity were also confirmed by the light and electron histopathology study. There were no significant differences between the two regimens used (protection and therapeutic) in the current study probably due to the short time of exposure, and the abrogation of Al³⁺ toxicity offered by selenite was better than that provided by NAC on the histopathology level.