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Decreased photosynthetic rate under high temperature in wheat is due to lipid desaturation, oxidation, acylation, and damage of organelles

Djanaguiraman, M., Boyle, D. L., Welti, R., Jagadish, S. V. K., Prasad, P. V. V.
BMC plant biology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 55
Triticum aestivum, acylation, antioxidant activity, cultivars, enzyme activity, enzymes, heat stress, lipid composition, lipid metabolism, oxidation, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species, temperature, thylakoids, triacylglycerols, wheat
BACKGROUND: High temperature is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. Variation in levels of a wide range of lipids, including stress-related molecular species, oxidative damage, cellular organization and ultrastructural changes were analyzed to provide an integrated view of the factors that underlie decreased photosynthetic rate under high temperature stress. Wheat plants of cultivar Chinese Spring were grown at optimum temperatures (25/15 °C, maximum/minimum) until the onset of the booting stage. Thereafter, plants were exposed to high temperature (35/25 °C) for 16 d. RESULTS: Compared with optimum temperature, a lower photosynthetic rate was observed at high temperature which is an interplay between thylakoid membrane damage, thylakoid membrane lipid composition, oxidative damage of cell organelle, and stomatal and non-stomatal limitations. Triacylglycerol levels were higher under high temperature stress. Polar lipid fatty acyl unsaturation was lower at high temperature, while triacylglycerol unsaturation was the same at high temperature and optimum temperature. The changes in lipid species indicates increases in activities of desaturating, oxidizing, glycosylating and acylating enzymes under high temperature stress. Cumulative effect of high temperature stress led to generation of reactive oxygen species, cell organelle and membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, and imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense system. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together with recent findings demonstrating that reactive oxygen species are formed from and are removed by thylakoid lipids, the data suggest that reactive oxygen species production, reactive oxygen species removal, and changes in lipid metabolism contribute to decreased photosynthetic rate under high temperature stress.