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Properties and applications of starch modifying enzymes for use in the baking industry

Park, SungHoon, Na, Yerim, Kim, Jungwoo, Kang, ShinDal, Park, Kwan-Hwa
Food science and biotechnology 2018 v.27 no.2 pp. 299-312
amylopectin, amylose, baked goods, bakery industry, catalytic activity, enzymes, freshness, glycosidic linkages, hardness, hydrolysis, moieties, molecular weight, shelf life
Enzyme technology has many potential applications in the baking industry because carbohydrate-active enzymes specifically react with carbohydrate components, such as starch, in complex food systems. Amylolytic enzymes are added to starch-based foods, such as baking products, to retain moisture more efficiently and to increase softness, freshness, and shelf life. The major reactions used to modify the structure of food starch include: (1) hydrolysis of α-1, 4 or α-1, 6 glycosidic linkages, (2) disproportionation by the transfer of glucan moieties, and (3) branching by formation of α-1, 6 glycosidic linkage. The catalytic reaction of a single enzyme or a mixture of more than two enzymes has been applied, generating novel starches, with chemical changes in the starch structure, in which the changes of molecular mass, branch chain length distribution, and the ratio of amylose to amylopectin may occur. These developments of enzyme technology highlight the potential to create various structured-starches for the food and baking industry.