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A comprehensive review of mathematical modeling of paddy parboiling and drying: Effects of modern techniques on process kinetics and rice quality
- Behera, G., Sutar, P.P.
- Trends in food science & technology 2018 v.75 pp. 206-230
- acids, air, energy, equations, food crops, gelatinization, mathematical models, methodology, microstructure, microwave drying, microwave treatment, milling, paddies, parboiling, pressure cooking, rice, rice starch, soaking, sorption, starch, steam, steaming, wastewater, water content
- Paddy is one of the most important food crops in the world. The major operations of paddy processing are soaking, parboiling/steaming, drying and milling. The paddy processing is an energy-intensive process with the substantial wastewater generation.The knowledge of mathematical modeling in different stages of paddy processing helps to improve the final rice quality and reduce the energy consumption. The present article analyzes the results of the recently published research work on different models used in paddy soaking, parboiling and drying operations. In addition, the article discusses the effects of modern methods of parboiling and drying operations on the process kinetics, microstructural changes and rice quality.Hot water soaking (40–80 °C), single steaming, double steaming, pressure cooking and microwave heating are used to parboil or gelatinize the starch in rice. Also, acids/alkaline solutions can gelatinize the rice starch. The open sun (2–4 days), hot air (50–80 °C), superheated steam, vacuum, infrared (0·167-0·625 W cm−2), and microwave drying (2.45 GHz) are employed to dry the parboiled paddy up to 12–14% moisture content (db). Modelling and simulation tools have been used to study these complex processes during paddy hydration, starch gelatinization and drying. Fick's law of diffusion, Peleg model, and exponential equation are used to describe the water sorption in paddy. Arrhenius equation, Ozawa Model and Kissinger equation are useful in understanding the starch gelatinization kinetics. Several empirical and semi-empirical models are used to study the drying kinetics of gelatinized paddy. In drying, the models given by Page, Henderson and Pabis and Newton describe the drying kinetics better than other models. The effects of modern methods of the parboiling and drying can be understood from the kinetics and other constants of the models as well as from the change in the microstructure of starch that takes place in the process of gelatinization. The recent developments on the effects of modern methods of hydration, parboiling and drying with limitations have also been focussed in the manuscript. Because of the concerns of wastewater generation during paddy hydration and parboiling, new techniques need to be developed for reducing wastewater generation and its treatment.