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Oviposition Behavior and Survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an Ectoparasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), on Hosts Exposed to an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Under Laboratory Conditions

Chow, Andrew, Dunlap, Christopher A., Jackson, Mark A., Flores, Daniel, Patt, Joseph M., Sétamou, Mamoudou
Journal of economic entomology 2016 v.109 no.5 pp. 1995-2005
Diaphorina citri, Isaria fumosorosea, Tamarixia radiata, antagonism, biological control, blastospores, entomopathogenic fungi, females, hosts, hyphae, laboratory experimentation, natural enemies, nymphs, oviposition, parasitism, parasitoids, pupae, reproductive success, shoots
Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 strain of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Three interactions were evaluated under laboratory conditions at 25 °C: 1) parasitoid survival if parasitized hosts were exposed to ARSEF 3581 blastospores before or after host mummification; 2) parasitoid survival if mummies containing larva or pupa were exposed to ARSEF 3581 hyphae; 3) parasitoid oviposition on infected hosts with visible or without visible hyphae. Topical application of blastospore formulation onto the dorsal surfaces of live nymphs parasitized with second-instar wasp larva (3 d after parasitism) reduced host mummification by 50% and parasitoid emergence by 85%. However, parasitoid emergence was not affected by topical application of blastospore formulation onto mummies that contained fourth-instar wasp larva (6 d after parasitism). Parasitoid emergence was reduced by 80% if mummies containing fourth-instar wasp larva were covered with blastospore formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. In comparison, parasitoid emergence was not affected if mummies containing wasp pupa (9 d after parasitism) were covered with formulation colonized by fungal hyphae. Female parasitoids oviposited on infected hosts without visible hyphae but not on infected hosts with visible hyphae. Our findings suggest that I. fumosorosea could detrimentally affect T. radiata, if both natural enemies are simultaneously deployed for biological control of D. citri. However, temporal separation of the fungus and parasitoid could reduce antagonism and enhance control of D. citri.