U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Chloroxyanion Residue on Seeds and Sprouts after Chlorine Dioxide Sanitation of Alfalfa Seed

David J. Smith, Grant R. Herges
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.8 pp. 1974-1980
alfalfa, ambient temperature, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, coliform bacteria, dose response, perchlorates, sanitation, seed germination, seeds, sodium chlorate, storage temperature
The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20,000 mg/L calcium hypochlorite, commonly used to disinfect seed, were quantified. Chlorine dioxide treatment reduced (P < 0.05) total coliforms on seeds with no effect (P > 0.05) on germination. Dose-dependent sodium chlorate residues were present in seed rinse (4.1 to 31.2 μg/g seed) and soak (0.7 to 8.3 μg/g seed) waters, whereas chlorate residues were absent (LOQ 5 ng/g) in sprouts, except for 2 of 5 replicates from the high chlorine dioxide treatment. Copious chlorate residues were present (168 to 1260 mg/L) in freshly prepared 20,000 mg/L calcium hypochlorite solution, and storage at room temperature increased chlorate residues significantly (P < 0.01).