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Rapid detection and differentiation of carp oedema virus and cyprinid herpes virus‐3 in koi and common carp

Soliman, H, El‐Matbouli, M
Journal of fish diseases 2018 v.41 no.5 pp. 761-772
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, Cyprinus carpio, DNA, diagnostic techniques, edema, industry, koi, polymerase chain reaction, rapid methods, screening, tissues, viruses
Carp oedema virus (CEV) and koi herpes virus (KHV) are of major concern to common carp breeders and koi enthusiasts worldwide. The viruses cause diseases that exhibit similar external signs; thus, it is difficult to distinguish between them clinically. In this study, we developed and optimized rapid and accurate single‐ and multiplex isothermal diagnostic tools, based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), for detection and differentiation of CEV and KHV. The assays were combined with a lateral flow dipstick to enable visual detection of amplification products and simplify post‐amplification analysis. Both CEV‐ and KHV‐RPA assays were specific for their target virus. The lower detection limits of the assays were similar to those of established diagnostic PCR tests for the viruses. A sample preparation method was optimized to eliminate the need for total DNA extraction from fish tissues. The estimated time to perform these RPA assays, from receiving the sample to having a result, is 50 min, compared to 10 and 7 hr for CEV‐ and KHV‐PCR tests, respectively. The assays can be performed in field situations to improve screening of fish and reduce spread of these viruses and thereby enhance the common carp and koi industries.