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Identification of the dwarf gene GmDW1 in soybean (Glycine max L.) by combining mapping-by-sequencing and linkage analysis

Li, Zhong-feng, Guo, Yong, Ou, Lin, Hong, Huilong, Wang, Jun, Liu, Zhang-xiong, Guo, Bingfu, Zhang, Lijuan, Qiu, Lijuan
Theoretical and applied genetics 2018 v.131 no.5 pp. 1001-1016
Glycine max, alleles, biosynthesis, chromosomes, cultivars, genetic analysis, gibberellins, internodes, leaves, mutants, phenotype, plant architecture, plant breeding, plant height, single nucleotide polymorphism, soybeans, tissues
KEY MESSAGE: GmDW1 encodes an ent-kaurene synthase (KS) acting at the early step of the biosynthesis pathway for gibberellins (GAs) and regulates the development of plant height in soybean. Plant height is an important component of plant architecture, and significantly affects crop breeding practices and yield. Here, we report the characterization of an EMS-induced dwarf mutant (dw) of the soybean cultivar Zhongpin 661 (ZDD23893). The dw mutant displayed reduced plant height and shortened internodes, both of which were mainly attributed to the longitudinally decreased cell length. The bioactive GA₁ (gibberellin A₁) and GA₄ (gibberellin A₄) were not detectable in the stem of dw, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by treatment with exogenous GA₃. Genetic analysis showed that the dwarf trait of dw was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. By combining linkage analysis and mapping-by-sequencing, we mapped the GmDW1 gene to an approximately 460-kb region on chromosome (Chr.) 8, containing 36 annotated genes in the reference Willliams 82 genome. Of these genes, we identified two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are present in the encoding regions of Gmdw1 and Glyma.08G165100 in dw, respectively. However, only the SNP mutation (T>A) at nucleotide 1224 in Gmdw1 cosegregated with the dwarf phenotype. GmDW1 encodes an ent-kaurene synthase, and was expressed in various tissues including root, stem, and leaf. Further phenotypic analysis of the allelic variations in soybean accessions strongly indicated that GmDW1 is responsible for the dwarf phenotype in dw. Our results provide important information for improving our understanding of the genetics of soybean plant height and crop breeding.