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The crop-residue of fiber hemp cv. Futura 75: from a waste product to a source of botanical insecticides

Benelli, Giovanni, Pavela, Roman, Lupidi, Giulio, Nabissi, Massimo, Petrelli, Riccardo, Ngahang Kamte, StephaneL., Cappellacci, Loredana, Fiorini, Dennis, Sut, Stefania, Dall’Acqua, Stefano, Maggi, Filippo
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.11 pp. 10515-10525
Culex quinquefasciatus, Musca domestica, Spodoptera littoralis, acetylcholinesterase, adults, alpha-pinene, botanical insecticides, cannabidiol, cosmetics, enzyme inhibition, essential oils, fabrics, food industry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hemp, hydrodistillation, inflorescences, insect vectors, insecticidal properties, larvae, leaves, lethal concentration 50, lethal dose 50, monoecy, moths, myrcene, pests, terpinolene, wastes
In the attempt to exploit the potential of the monoecious fiber hemp cv. Futura 75 in new fields besides textile, cosmetics and food industry, its crop-residue given by leaves and inflorescences was subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oils. These are niche products representing an ideal candidate for the development of natural insecticides for the control and management of mosquito vectors, houseflies and moth pests. After GC-MS analysis highlighting a safe and legal chemical profile (THC in the range 0.004–0.012% dw), the leaf and inflorescence essential oils were investigated for the insecticidal potential against three insect targets: the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Spodoptera littoralis and the adults of Musca domestica. The essential oil from inflorescences, showing (E)-caryophyllene (21.4%), myrcene (11.3%), cannabidiol (CBD, 11.1%), α-pinene (7.8%), terpinolene (7.6%), and α-humulene (7.1%) as the main components, was more effective than leaf oil against these insects, with LD₅₀ values of 65.8 μg/larva on S. littoralis, 122.1 μg/adult on M. domestica, and LC₅₀ of 124.5 μl/l on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. The hemp essential oil moderately inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a target enzyme in pesticide science. Overall, these results shed light on the future application of fiber hemp crop-residue for the development of effective, eco-friendly and sustainable insecticides.