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Thai Hom Mali Rice: Origin and Breeding for Subsistence Rainfed Lowland Rice System

Vanavichit, Apichart, Kamolsukyeunyong, Wintai, Siangliw, Meechai, Siangliw, Jonaliza L., Traprab, Suniyom, Ruengphayak, Siriphat, Chaichoompu, Ekawat, Saensuk, Chatree, Phuvanartnarubal, Ekapol, Toojinda, Theerayut, Tragoonrung, Somvong
Rice 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 20
Oryza sativa, aldehyde dehydrogenase, backcrossing, chromosomes, cooking quality, genes, genetic improvement, grain quality, insect outbreaks, insect pests, irrigation, landraces, models, molecular cloning, odors, plant breeding, rainfed farming, rice, Thailand
The world-renowned Thai Hom Mali Rice has been the most important aromatic rice originating in Thailand. The aromatic variety was collected from Chachoengsao, a central province, and after pure-line selection, it was officially named as Khao Dawk Mali 105, (KDML105). Because of its superb fragrance and cooking quality, KDML105 has been a model variety for studying genes controlling grain quality and aroma. The aromatic gene was cloned in KDML105, as an amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) or better known as BADH2 located on chromosome 8. Later on, all other aromatic rice genes were discovered as allelic to the AMADH. As a selection of local landrace variety found in rainfed areas, the Thai Jasmine rice showed adaptive advantages over improved irrigated rice in less fertile lowland rainfed conditions. Because KDML105 was susceptible to most diseases and insect pests, marker-assisted backcross selection (MABC) was used for the genetic improvement since 2000. After nearly 17 years of MABC for integrating new traits into KDML105, a new generation of KDML105, designated HM84, was developed which maintains the cooking quality and fragrance, and has gained advantages during flash flooding, disease, and insect outbreak.