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Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008

Meshram, SaritaGajbhiye, Gautam, Randhir, Kahya, Ercan
Theoretical and applied climatology 2018 v.132 no.3-4 pp. 939-951
basins, drought, monsoon season, rain, watersheds, India
The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969–2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from −26% in 1976 to −60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of −60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as −60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events (z score <−2) were detected during July, August, and September. Moreover, severe dry events were observed in August, September, and October. The drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.