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Effect of Sn substitution on the energy storage properties of 0.45SrTiO3–0.2Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–0.35BaTiO3 ceramics
- Cui, Chenwei, Pu, Yongping
- Journal of materials science 2018 v.53 no.13 pp. 9830-9841
- ambient temperature, ceramics, electric power, energy, microstructure, tin
- Phase constitution, microstructure, dielectric performance, polarization, breakdown strength as well as energy storage behaviors for the (1 − x)(0.45SrTiO₃–0.2Na₀.₅Bi₀.₅TiO₃–0.35BaTiO₃)–xSnO₂ (STNBTBT–Snx) were systematically investigated. The dielectric measurements exhibit a relaxor behavior, and the dielectric loss is very low (< 0.6%) at room temperature for all compositions. Significant refinement of grain size and low dielectric loss were observed with the addition of Sn, accounting for effectively enhanced dielectric breakdown strength (17.0–25.2 kV/mm when x = 0~0.09), beneficial for the energy storage applications. The sample with x = 0.07 exhibits the highest energy storage density of 2.25 J/cm³ and an energy storage efficiency of 79.51% at 24 kV/mm. Particularly, its energy storage properties were found to depend weakly on frequency (1–100 Hz). Our results suggest that this system can be a potential lead-free candidate for high electric energy storage and discharge efficiency.