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Ferredoxin: the central hub connecting photosystem I to cellular metabolism

Mondal, J., Bruce, B. D.
Photosynthetica 2018 v.56 no.1 pp. 279-293
Cyanobacteria, NADP (coenzyme), adenosine triphosphate, algae, autotrophs, biochemical pathways, cell growth, cysteine, electron transfer, electrons, ligands, nitrate reduction, nitrite reductase, photosystem I, proteins, sulfites
Ferredoxin (Fd) is a small soluble iron-sulfur protein essential in almost all oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. It contains a single [2Fe-2S] cluster coordinated by four cysteine ligands. It accepts electrons from the stromal surface of PSI and facilitates transfer to a myriad of acceptors involved in diverse metabolic processes, including generation of NADPH via Fd-NADP-reductase, cyclic electron transport for ATP synthesis, nitrate reduction, nitrite reductase, sulfite reduction, hydrogenase and other reductive reactions. Fd serves as the central hub for these diverse cellular reactions and is integral to complex cellular metabolic networks. We describe advances on the central role of Fd and its evolutionary role from cyanobacteria to algae/plants. We compare structural diversity of Fd partners to understand this orchestrating role and shed light on how Fd dynamically partitions between competing partner proteins to enable the optimum transfer of PSI-derived electrons to support cell growth and metabolism.