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Phenotypic characterization of derivative 22 syndrome: case series and review
- Saxena, Deepti, Srivastava, Priyanka, Tuteja, Moni, Mandal, Kausik, Phadke, ShubhaR
- Journal of genetics 2018 v.97 no.1 pp. 205-211
- chromosome translocation, chromosomes, ears, failure to thrive, germ cells, heart, kidneys, males, microarray technology, palate, parents, patients, phenotype
- Emanuel syndrome is caused due to an additional derivative chromosome 22 and is characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, failure to thrive, preauricular tags or pits, ear anomalies, cleft or high-arched palate, micrognathia, kidney abnormalities, congenital heart defects and genital abnormalities in males. In 99% of the cases, one of the parents is a carrier of balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22. It occurs due to malsegregation of the gametes with 3:1 segregation. In this case series, we describe four patients with diverse manifestations of this condition. The craniosynostosis observed in one case is a novel finding which has never been reported previously. This study aims to widen the phenotypic spectrum of Emanuel syndrome and provide cytogenetic microarray based breakpoints in two of the cases, thus supporting close clustering of the breakpoints of this common recurrent chromosomal rearrangement.